Patriarchal society in ancient India has accepted due to the divine structure of Brahmanism in the Law of Manu (Manusmṛti). It has gone beyond the border of India throughout South Asia without the exception it absorbed in the later Buddhist literature. As Brahmanism spreads, the gender differentiation becomes more obvious from culture to religious practices. The gender discrimination not only exists in ancient India but also in Judeo-Christian religions who have the mythical condemning of Eve for breaching the law of God in Christianity and the strict rules for women in Islam.
Though this issue is a long time back, from 19thcentury onward the gender issue has been debating in the UK and the USA widely. This is indeed, due to the male domain in walks of life in ancient society. The gender discrimination is concerned with domain in politics, freedom of religions and socio-political contribution. According to feminist, it is entirely the latter it is not in nature, nor biological, but completely conditioned by social environment. Due to the discrimination of gender, it has lots of disadvantage that woman can contribute to the society. To the Buddhist ‘the origin of gender is due to the evolutionary process of society’ as states in the Aggaññāsutta in Dīgha Nikāya. However, in the later Buddhist compilers they have severely condemned on a woman even the spiritual attainment of Buddhahood, which appears as a contradiction against the Buddha’s attitude of woman in the early Pāḷi literature. The Theravada Buddhist country respects the Buddhist Texts as a result this kind of Brahmanic condemn on woman still exists in the Theravada Buddhist countries in South Asia particularly in Myanmar compared to other Buddhist countries. In this short discussion, it will discuss the early and later Buddhist attitude towards women concerning the Theravada Buddhist practises in Myanmar.
Origin of gender according to Buddhism
Generally gender is a conventional expression but surprisingly the ultimate analysis of sexual orientation is also found in the Buddhist philosophy. Gender is the fact of being either male or female.The Buddha described gender as being distinguished by either male (purisindriya) or female (itthindriya) thoughts, occupation, attire, interests, impulses, voice, appearance, scent, etc.It is clear from this that he saw gender as a combination of material and psychological, inborn and acquired factors. This means that while both genders are determined to a very high degree by their bodies, they do have the ability to transcend the psychological and social aspects of gender. Thus, as far as the potential to attain enlightenment is concerned men and women are equal.In the Commentary of Dhammasaṅgaṇī, both genders come into being during the procedure of the first inhabitants of this cycle, subsequently they arise at conception.This is true in the final features of a person who does have neutrality on both genders. The two distinct characters are neither low nor high distinction male and female but simply due to their dispositional behaviour. Due to that in the Buddha’s understanding of gender, there is no difference and free to enter and practice in his teaching, which will discuss in the subsequent passages.
It would be proper to state the origin of gender according to Buddhist text since gender difference is a matter of social conception. It is said that a gender difference is immersed in the evolutionary process of social order in Aggaññāsutta. At first no gender differences is existed but in the later period due to the cognitive state of greed, hatred and delusion of the Brahama, gender comes into exist. In the Aggaññā Sutta, it states that:
And, Vāseṭṭha and Bhāradvāja, those beings continued for a very long time feeding on this rice as their food and nourishment. And, Vāseṭṭha and Bhāradvāja, as they continued for a very long time feeding on this rice as their food and nourishment, their bodies became coarser still and among themselves they noticed even greater differences in their looks. Then the female developed female organsand the male developed male organs. And the women became excessively preoccupied with the men, and the men with the women. Owing to this excessive preoccupation with each other, lust was aroused, and their bodies burned [with passion]. Because of this burning, they indulged in sexual activity. But, Vāseṭṭha and Bhāra, dvāja, when (other) beings saw them coupling, some threw dust, some threw ashes [dregs], some threw cow-dung at them, crying: ‘Away with (this) filth! Away with (this) filth!
Though it may be a kind of story but it gives reason how the non-existence of gender comes into being on earth. However, from the Buddhist Abhidhama points of view, the Brahma has no gender differentiation that they have to change male appearance from female gender. It is also rather risk to state for being partial statement on the gender.
Problem of woman in Burmese Buddhism
A non-Burmese will surprise to learn how heavily Burmese culture affects with Brahmanic ideas on woman. As the traditional saying of Burmese goes, ‘a male dog is higher in status than a woman. A dog could be animal but due to the masculinity dog has a higher status.’ But, is it really true according to their saying? Nobody told yet due to the higher status of gender male dog has higher facility than women. It could be due to earlier extreme discriminative attitude on woman, the saying come into exist.
Burmese have been practicing Buddhism from 10thcentury AD of Bagan period untill today; as a result Burmese culture means Buddhist culture. The Burmese Buddhist strongly believes on Buddhism, however in due course to some of the later bias writing on woman they holds them as an authentic teaching of the Buddha. The later part of Buddhist writings were male domain; as a result the attitude on woman has changed, which has gone against the Buddha’s teaching in many discourses. Hence, Mra says, ‘some Buddhist teachings have been written by men, monks, have been handed down from the past, but perhaps they are a reflection of the opinion of those men instead of Buddha’s teachings.’ (Mra, 2002: 35). Moreover, he shows that most women I know cannot accept that men would be superior to women, but perhaps that is because one tends to associate with like-minded people. (Ibid: 35). From equality perspective not only Burmese but every woman will not agree.
In Burmese culture the Lokanīti (Ethics of the World), one of the popular manual of monks and nuns has lots of influenced with the Brahmanic understanding on women. For instance in verse-97, it is said that, a wife is ruined when separated from her husband for a month. Despite strong support of the Buddha, the attitude of women in Theravada Buddhist has heavily influenced by the Brahmin caste orders of ancient India. In Brahmanism, the Law of Manu (Manusmṛti) is regarded a divine texts comes from the Brahma. Concerning the behavior of woman, the Laws of Manu dictates, ‘whether it is young woman, girl or matured, nothing must be done independently, even in her own house. In childhood, female must be subject to her father, in youth to her husband, when her lord is dead, to her sons. A woman must never be independent.’ (Manu: chapter 5, 147-148).
The misogynist attitude has crossed beyond the social norm of laying down the rule for religious practise. ‘Women were prevented from performing religious rites. And even the knowledge of Veda was to be kept from woman. (Manu: chapter 9. 18). Indeed, in Buddhism such rigid rule has not existed, however, from another aspect it got influenced until today a Buddhist country like Myanmar.
The Buddhist understanding of impurity on woman leads to the prohibition of visiting in the religious place in Myanmar. Mra Win says that ‘women’s clothes are considered dirty just because of menstruation. This is a kind of superstition and a social disease we have to reform these kinds of customs that give us an inferior status. (Mra, 2002: 36-37). Though he thought simply due to menstruation the women cloths are dirty. Perhaps, that effect even instincts the whole motivation of degrading the woman than man. This is not an independent incident in Myanmar culture but due to the Brahmanic understanding of impurity on woman. The Laws of Manu states, ‘When one has touched an Chandala, a menstruating woman, a woman in childbed, a corpse or even someone else who has touched a [corpse], one becomes pure by bathing.Among many reasons in the said verse, ‘a menstruating woman’ is the main reason heavily affected in the Buddhist understanding of impurity towards woman. This is biological incident that should not be taken as a kind of divinely curse bringing bad luck to others also.
This biological incident of woman does not happen all the time but randomly. The Buddhist will be trouble if they say on certain month (menstruating month) that woman should not visit on Kyaitiyo Pagoda, Mahāmyat Muni Buddha etc. Therefore, in order to avoid from such bothersome they completely laid down the prohibition in the sacred places as “Women are not allowed to enter/ ‘Mingale mawin ya bhu” which are far from the Buddha’s teaching. However, it seems less rigid rule for woman for freedom of religious practice in other Buddhist countries in South Asia.
In traditional Theravāda understanding on taking conception of woman is due to acquiring less merit. In his writing, Mra says, ‘if a woman does good deeds in her life, she may be reborn as a man in her next life. However, if a man is cunning or mean, he may be reborn as a woman. These aspects of our religion have a great influence on daily life and I think they cannot be changed. (Mra, 2002: 36) This statement does not support from the teaching of the Buddha. What traditionally could support is the woman suffers from unshared experience than man like giving birth and menstruation. This is the biological coincident rather than supporting the less merit.
Moreover, another instance also appears in the later compilers, that a woman cannot get prophecy from a Buddha for fully enlightenment. As a result people believe and encourage to woman performing more merit for the attainment of manhood. They do not fit with other sayings of the Buddha. For instance, the Buddha said whether male or female anyone with the vehicle of eightfold path can reach to Nibbāna, which will discuss in the subsequent parts. Less merit concept for woman is also introduced through the meritorious deed of ‘kathicīvaradāna’after the Buddhist monk rain retreat. If a woman wishes for attaining male life during the performance of Kaṭhinacīvaradāna, she will attain man life. This is none other than the misogynist attitude of male compilers.
Another important issue for the prohibition of woman in Buddhism is the traditional Buddhist understanding of losing the True Dhamma. The issue seems before Common Era. In a Post-canonical text, Milindapañhā raises, if the Buddha has not ordained the nun (bhikkhuni) the True Dhamm would have lasted for thousand years. But due to the nun ordination, it will last only five hundred years. Moreover, the Gotamī Sutta in Aṅguttara Nikāya also gives a suggestive issue to make foothold as a negative effect for giving nun ordination. The reasons given in Milindapañha are unreasonable to support the loss of Buddha’s dispensation by giving nun ordination. If a person practices the Dhamma according to the teaching of the Buddha, there would not be empty of attaining liberation as the Buddha uttered in Mahāparinibbāna Sutta. By comparing the two statements, it seems the compilers wanted to maintain the Buddha’s word at the same time by giving another reason to support the negative effect of nun ordination. This nun ordination (bhikkhunī upasampāda) issue is due to the issue of impurity of woman during menstruation as it is strongly recognised in Brahmanism.
Attitude of women in Judeo-Christian religions
The gender attitude is not only in Buddhism but also found in Judeo-Christian religions seriously based on mythical stories in the Bible. According to the creation of these religions, God created the man first and out of man a woman was created. To see clearly in the Genesis chapter 2 verse 2:22, ‘out of Adam’s rib and flesh, woman was created’, Adam gave that she should be called woman. According to the statement, woman is subsidiary than man. With that using they did not stop, further the God is conceived as a father lives in Heaven and the male domains its role. Like husband dominates upon in the family. In the Old Testament Bible Genesis chapter-3, the Eve ate the forbidden apple due to the convince of Satan; as a result they were casted down and whoever born from the womb of Eve they become sinners. No human being have appeared before, thus all human beings in this earth are the lineage of Adam and Eve from the Bible point of view. In the John chapter 3 verse 16, ‘God sent the only son i.e. Jesus); whoever believes him they will be free from Sin’ consequently they will get the Heaven but unbelievers will caste down to the Hell forever. The whole concept of sin and eternal Hell are due to the Eve. If she had not eaten the Apple, all the people would have enjoyed in the Eden Garden with God. The whole concept is none other than blaming to the woman. Hence, Mary says, ‘the entire conceptual of theology and ethics developed under condition of patriarchy of have been the products of male and tend to serve the interest of the sexist of society’. So Prof. Premasiri says that ‘if not for a woman Christ has not been necessary to be born. Eve has committed the evil deed as a result God is forced to send his only son Jesus to come for its compensation’.
The Buddhist discrimination is not based on myth but the biological reason whereas in the Judeo-Christian religions discrimination on women is based on myth of Adam and Eve that appeared in the Old Testament of Bible under the chapter of Genesis.
Misogynist in later Buddhist literature
Despite Buddha’s praiseworthy on nun and even woman there are contradictory statements assigned to the Buddha in the Tipiṭaka Pāḷi cannon. In this short discussion those discourses will present as they appear in the Buddhist literature.
In Kamboja Sutta in Aṅguttara Nikāya after asking of Venerable Ānanda, the Buddha replied, why one should not sit together with women. The discourse states that, ‘Ānanda, women are prone to anger; woman are prone envious; woman are miserly; women are unwise; this is why women do not sit in council, engage in business or got Kamboja’.According to the statement all women are envious, miser, unwise as a result one should not sit together in the council with woman. This seems men are generous, wise, so one should always associate with man. By showing the common saying of the Buddha one can be clear. In the Maṅgalasutta in Khaddakapath, ‘one should not associate with ignorant whereas one should associate with wise’. Does the Buddha state such utterance of ignorance based on gender? Indeed, Buddha did not utter such discrimination on their spiritual inherent based on gender difference.
Moreover, Mātāputta sutta in Aṅguttara Nikāya shows a partiality towards the gender basis. ‘Oh monks, a woman thinks on man while walking, standing, sitting, lying, laughing, talking, singing, crying, swollen. If one says rightly entirely the trap of Māra, one has to say the woman as the trap of Māra.’ If the son would have tried to generate wholesome mind, the evil action would not lead to transgression. This could be possible in the real situation but that should not be taken as a general assumption. The same case could happen for a man, who will always think about woman. The problem appears in this discourse is only one side i.e. woman without showing the attitude of man. Unwholesome is concerned whether man or woman even child or old without any gender or age basis in Buddhism, which analyses the mind in Abhidhamma texts. This is certainly without any hesitation the extrapolation in Sri Lanka before the writing of Tipiṭaka with misogynist attitude.
In Dutiyakaṇhasappa sutta the woman is compared with a snake, which is poisonous and untrusted. The discourse goes,‘women are wrathful, hostile, of virulent venom, double tongued, and they betray friends.As a worldly human being, is it not possible for a man to be endowed with the five above qualities? Certainly without any gender and age basis, those qualities could be endowed by any living beings needless to state only woman. The discourse goes by saying the five disadvantages of a woman. If there is such kind of disadvantages for a man in the Buddhist texts, then one could say the equal emphasis on both genders. With the above partiality one may be sure this is not from the mouth of the Buddha and as a partial emphasis. Moreover, in Aṅguttara Nikāya the statement of ten unwholesome courses of actions is mentioned only female with ten qualities goes to hell.
Moreover, partiality statement appears in Uppathasuttaṃ that ‘taint of ascetic practise is woman’. It is true from one perspective. However, from another point of view one can argue, is it not man an obstacle for woman? When one says ‘ascetic’ it does not identify whether man or woman; rather the practitioner could be man or woman. In the case of the nun Uppalavanna, her cousin has raped soon after her ordination, who was chasing after since after her ordination. Then, one can say not only women are the stain of the holy life but men are also stain of holy life (for woman).
The nun ordination is one the biggest issues in the Theravāda Buddhism since the first Buddhist council if the texts record is factual. In Gotamī Sutta, the foster mother of the Buddha, Gotamī asked for thrice for going forth but the Buddha denied. In such conversion they narrated in the sutta to show the intention of the Buddha’s disagreement on nun ordination. The Buddha gave the nun ordination only when the nun follows the eight cardinal rules:
- Nun should pay respect to monk ordained on that very day.
- Nun should not enter in rains where there are no monks.
- Nun should ask two things of uposattha and exhortation in a fortnight.
- During rains nun should invite to anything heard, suspect and seen.
- Committer of grave offence should observe penance fortnight in both orders.
- A probationer should seek ordination from both orders.
- A nun should not revile to a monk.
- A nun should not admonish to a monk.
One could see how the representation is on the eight rules for nun as assigning to the Buddha himself. Particularly three points are concerned with the earlier discussion. The first (1) point is concerned with menstruating problem of a woman, whom even a new monk should not pay homage. Paying homage for the monastic is based on longer year they ordained but not the gender basis, which is clear in every Buddhist people. Number seven (7) and (8) are concerned for the same reason since a woman is impure due to the menstruation how should she dare to give advice to a monk. One could have doubt on this discourse that the Buddha taught himself by comparing other discourses on nun in the Buddhist literature. The Buddha did not say man is higher than woman. What the Buddha always concerns for superiority is the endowment of morality, concentration and wisdom. Anyone who has overcome all defilements are worthy to respect irrespective of their genders orientation.
Women voices in early Buddhist concept
In early Indian context during the Buddha’s time woman is regarded as low and less beneficial comparing to men. Once, when the King Kosala got the news that his queen Mallika got a daughter. In response to that the Buddha uttered,
‘A woman, O lord of the people, May turn out better than a man:
She may be wise and virtuous, A devoted wife, revering her mother-in-law.
In this saying the Buddha’s attitude is very clear and strong supporter non-partiality rather than taking side on a specific gender. One may be a man if he does not develop the good qualities how the man will earn good reputation from Buddhist lens. Therefore, Buddha’s concept on great or higher is based on their empowerment (inner qualities) towards the happiness and welfare of many.
The Buddha has no gender discrimination for the liberation, which the later Buddhist literature shows a disagreement of the Buddha. However, in Acchāra Sutta in Saṃyutta Nikāya,
This is the only vehicle.
Be it a woman or be it a man.
The one who takes this vehicle,
Can reach the peace of Nibbāna.
The statement shows Buddha strongly support both genders since anybody would like to walk in this path they will eventually find the complete freedom from suffering. Gender is just the conventional term that people conceive; their empowerment towards any task does not bind within the convention of gender.
In the foster mother of the Buddha during her passing away to parinibbāna, the Buddha asked to show the Gotamī abilities:
‘In order to remove the doubts that woman can attain dhamma, please display your psychic power) Then Mahā Pajapati Gotamī performed many wonders per Buddha’s request.
We could see blaming on Mahā Pajapati Gotamī for initiating ordination of woman; this event may act as a counter case to such attitude. If the Buddha believes on the highest that can develop even by woman, how one could think the gender discrimination on the religious practise in his teaching.
The early enlightened nuns prove the empowerment of women in the spiritual attainment. The women attitude in Brahmanism reflects the degradation of women even in their spiritual attainment. Such enlightened story is found in Soma Therī saying in Soma Sutta in Bhikkhuni Saṃyutta. The Māra approached to Soma Therī and recited thus,
“That state so hard to achieve
Which is to be attained by the seers,
Can’t be attained by a woman
With her two-fingered wisdom.”
Her reply is very stunning, which reflects her confidence towards experience in the teaching of the Buddha, as:
What does womanhood matter at all; when the mind is concentrated well, When knowledge flows on steadily; As one sees correctly into Dhamma. One to whom it might occur, I’m woman’ or ‘I’ am man’ or I am anything at all- Is fit for Māra to address.
The nuns during the Buddha played an important role in almost all the missionary tasks. In the case of preaching the Dhamma, many were popular either in theoretical or practical aspects. An instance in the Uttama Therī verses, due to incapable of concentration her mind she got advice from a nun; as a result she got freedom from suffering. Her voice recorded in the Therīgāthā,
Four times, five, I ran amok from my dwelling, having gained no peace of awareness, my thoughts out of control. So I went to a trustworthy nun. She taught me the Dhamma: aggregates, sense spheres, & elements. Hearing the Dhamma, I did as she said. For seven days I sat in one spot, absorbed in rapture & bliss. On the eighth, I stretched out my legs, having burst the mass of darkness.
Among many nuns records in the Buddhist literature Khujjuttara was ranked as the best Dhamma preacher in the Buddhist literature. Due to her clever preaching on Dhamma five hundred women headed by Queen Sāmāvatī penetrated noble teaching of the Buddha. Moreover, in the Uddena Sutta in Udāna due to the Māgandiya’s conspiracy five hundred women headed by Sāmāvatī died and the monks reported to the Buddha regarding their destiny. The Buddha said, ‘Bhikkhus, some of these women lay followers were stream-entrers, some once-returners, some never-returners. Not fruitless was the death of any of those women lay followers.’
The relatives of Vaḍḍha brought up since his mother become nun in his childhood. Once while he visited to nun quarter, his mother gave advice on him on liberation. Later Vaḍḍha too become monk.
Vaddha, may you not have craving for the world at any time. Child, do not be again and again a sharer in pain. Happy, indeed, Vaddha, dwell the sages, free from lust, with doubts cut off, become cool, having attained self-taming, (being) without taints. O Vaddha, devote yourself to the way practiced by seers for the attainment of insight, for the putting an end to pain.
The ancient voices of nuns are very powerful. They could give effective preaching that leads to disenchantment. In the above stanza the mother summon to the son, which eventually bended his mind for seeking liberation.
Among many female disciples Uppalavaṇṇa is one of the popular nuns, whom the Buddha conferred the title of highest in supernormal power. Once while she was taking rest in the Sāla Grove, the Māra was terrifying as mentions in the Uppalavaṇṇa Sutta in Bhikkhunī Saṃyutta. She is confident and her voice is indeed manly.
‘Though a hundred thousand rogues
Just like you might come here,
I stir not a hair, I feel no terror;
Even alone, Mara, I don’t fear you.
I can make myself disappear
Or I can enter inside your belly.
I can stand between your eyebrows
Yet you won’t catch a glimpse of me.
I am the master of my own mind,
The bases of power are well developed;
I am freed from every kind of bondage,
Therefore I don’t fear you, friend.’
She became freed from all kinds of suffering having developed the mind into higher state. As a result she could convey her strong message towards the capability of women in any sphere.
Moreover, the deep philosophical enunciation of dependent arising (paṭiccasamupāda) is found in the Vajirā Sutta in Bhikkhunī Saṃyutta. Once when Vajirā returned from alms-round the Māra came and was terrifying. The Māra says,
By whom has this being been created?
Where is the maker of the being?
Where has the being arisen?
Where does the being cease?”
Her answer is so succinct with deep philosophical meaning in the Buddhism. She replied,
‘Why now do you assume ‘a being’?
Mara, have you grasped a view?
This is a heap of sheer constructions:
Here no being is found.
Just as, with an assemblage of parts,
The word ‘chariot’ is used,
So, when the aggregates are present,
There’s the convention ‘a being.’
It is only suffering that comes to be,
Suffering that stands and falls away.
Nothing but suffering comes to be,
Nothing but suffering ceases.’
Venerable Vajirā Therī’s reply is from the analytical perspective of what generally people regard as individual. In this analysis the concept of man and woman has no place to foothold.
In Buddhism, there is no variation based on gender in every Buddhist practises. It is totally depends on each individual even towards seeking for liberation. The Buddha is always consistence with democratic attitude on each individual needless to say to be concerned with a particular gender.
The incidents appear in the Buddhist literature towards the particular gender is obviously cannot attribute to the Buddha. Some of the sayings in the literature are expressed based on partility. Such expression should be regarded as later extrapolation or insufficient incidents of women in the records. Monks saying recorded extensively whereas nun sayings get place partially in Therīgāthā and Bhikkhunī Saṃyutta. Such as the life of Khujjuttara did not appear in the Therīgāthā and Bhikkhunī Saṃyutta but found in Commentaries. There could have many female voices if they had preserved it properly with non-partiality. In the Eye of the Buddha all are equal; no higher or lower gender differences in Buddhism.
A Guide to Buddhism A-Z: 92. “Gender”
A Guide to Buddhism A-Z: 92. “Gender”
The Expositor: 420.; with reference to Aggaññāsutta in DN.iii. 73.
DA: That is, those who were women in previous lives. Conversely, the others were men in their past lives.
Away with (this) filth!…” (nassa asuci).
Law of Manu, 5.85: 36
Pañceva dāni, ānanda, vassasatāni saddhammo ṭhassatī’ti yaṃ bhagavā āha, taṃ khayaṃ paridīpayanto sesakaṃ paricchindi, vassasahassaṃ, ānanda, saddhammo tiṭṭheyya, sace bhikkhuniyo na pabbājeyyuṃ. Milindapañhā: 134.
Mary Dairy, 1995:4.
The Numerical Dicourses of the Buddha, 2012: 465.; AN.i.394.
Itthī, bhikkhave, gacchantīpi purisassa cittaṃ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati; ṭhitāpi…pe… nisinnāpi… sayānāpi… hasantīpi… bhaṇantīpi… gāyantīpi… rodantīpi… ugghātitāpi … matāpi purisassa cittaṃ pariyādāya tiṭṭhati. Yañhi taṃ, bhikkhave, sammā vadamāno vadeyya – ‘samantapāso mārassā’ti mātugāmaṃyeva sammā vadamāno vadeyya – ‘samantapāso mārassā’’’ti. AN.ii.63.
Nummerical Discourses of the Buddha, 2012: 830. Pañcime ādīnavā mātugāme. Katame pañca? Kodhano, upanāhī, ghoraviso, dujjivho, mittadubbhī. AN.ii.227.
Nummerical Discourses of the Buddha, 2012: 1532.
Connected Discourses of the Buddha, 2000: 179.; Itthīpi hi ekacciyā, seyyā posa janādhipa; Medhāvinī sīlavatī, sassudevā patibbatā.‘‘Tassā yo jāyati poso, sūro hoti disampati;Tādisā subhagiyā putto, rajjampi anusāsatī’’ti. SN.i.103.
‘‘Yassa etādisaṃ yānaṃ, itthiyā purisassa vā; Sa ve etena yānena, nibbānasseva santike’’ti. SN.i.130.
Thīnaṃ dhammābhisamaye, ye bālā vimatiṃ gatā; Tesaṃ diṭṭhippahānatthaṃ, iddhiṃ dassehi gotamī’. Apadāna.ii. 212.
Yaṃ taṃ isīhi pattabbaṃ, ṭhānaṃ durabhisambhavaṃ; Na taṃ dvaṅgulapaññāya, sakkā pappotumitthiyā’’ti. SN. i. 129.
Connected Discourses: 2000: 223; ‘‘Itthibhāvo kiṃ kayirā, cittamhi susamāhite; Ñāṇamhi vattamānamhi, sammā dhammaṃ vipassato. ‘‘Yassa nūna siyā evaṃ, itthāhaṃ purisoti vā; Kiñci vā pana aññasmi [asmīti (syā. kaṃ. pī.)], taṃ māro vattumarahatī’’ti. SN.i.129.
Therīgāthā 384. Vimānavatthu et al..384.
The Udāna and the Itivuttaka, 2007: 95.
Vimānavatthu et. Al. Verse 404-405: 401.
Iddhimantīnaṃ yadidaṃ uppalavaṇṇā. AN.1. 26.
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